Int J Radiat Biol. Thus, Cosquer et al. Richter et al. 2012;31:25074. J Electromagnet Anal. Resting state cortical EEG rhythms in Alzheimer's disease: toward EEG markers for clinical applications: a review. The authors predicted the differential expression of genes associated with transcription, translation and receptor functions (in addition to brain-related and signaling pathway-related) using the iRDB, miRbase and miRanda databases. Kwon et al. [64] exposed cultured rat hippocampal neurons to GSM 1800MHz microwaves (SAR, 2.4W/kg) and observed a selective decrease in the amplitude of -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-soxazole propionic acid (AMPA) miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). By using this website, you agree to our 1 Microwave radiation may also lead to skin cancer/health problems when we are within the radius of a cell phone tower in a certain specified limited distance. The authors detected the EEG within the frequency bands of 0.530.0Hz for 5 consecutive days. Lai H, Horita A, Guy AW. [58] exposed volunteers to microwaves at a frequency of 450MHz for 10 repeated intervals of 1min of irradiation and 1min off. Cell Biochem Biophys. Cite this article. Identification of a novel rat nr2b subunit gene promoter region variant and its association with microwave-induced neuron impairment. pability of the body (thus, a thermal effect), whereas the standard of the U.S.S.R. and Poland are based upon the interaction of the microwave fields with the brain and central nervous system as measured by neurological or behavior effects. Researchers have also used the 12-arm maze test on rats to test spatial working ability after exposure to 2.45GHz pulse microwave radiation. Schmid MR, Murbach M, Lustenberger C, Maire M, Kuster N, Achermann P, et al. 2011;18:32533. Google Scholar. In a study investigating the influence of low-frequency microwave (450MHz) radiation on EEG, Hinrikus et al. Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. To determine the specific dose-effect relationship between microwave radiation and its biological effects, more intensive studies must be performed. radiations. Most matter, including the human body, is largely . Koivisto M, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hmlinen H. The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory. Many recent studies have reported that microwaves exposure affects EEG results [54,55,56,57]. The Morris water maze has been widely used in neurobehavioral tests [36]. Ozben T. Oxidative stress and apoptosis: impact on cancer therapy. Schz J, Jacobsen R, Olsen JH, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Johansen C. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort. Lymphatic Systems: Due to chemical alterations within food substances, malfunctions occur in the lymphatic system, causing a degeneration of the body's ability to . In epidemiology, there is no conclusive evidence showing that microwaves have carcinogenic effects. Calabr E, Magaz S. Inspections of mobile phone microwaves effects on proteins secondary structure by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PubMed Neurosci Lett. 1999;9:3438. Biochemical modifications and neuronal damage in brain of young and adult rats after long-term exposure to mobile phone radiations. Int J Radiat Biol. Front Neurosci. 2010;473:525. Radial arm maze performance of rats following repeated low level microwave radiation exposure. 2014;70:84555. PubMed Central Ellis CE, Murphy EJ, Mitchell DC, Golovko MY, Scaglia F, Barcel-Coblijn GC, et al. Iran J Public Health. biological effects of electromagnetic waves started to be discussed. Some studies have proposed that miRNAs play important roles in nerve regeneration, neurodegenerative diseases, and the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and schizophrenia [93,94,95]. 2008;22:9927. A resting eyes-closed electroencephalogram was used to continuously record the results, which showed that there was an increase in the power of the , 1 and 2 frequency bands in the 0.303W/kg group and in the 2 frequency bands in the 0.003W/kg group. Shahin S, Banerjee S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. Larjavaara S, Schz J, Swerdlow A, Feychting M, Johansen C, Lagorio S, et al. 1984;11:4760. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. [41] exposed rats to 2.45GHz microwaves (2 pulse width, 500 pps, and SAR 0.6W/kg) for 45min and found that microwave-induced behavioral alterations measured by Lai had more to do with factors related to performance bias than to spatial working memory. PLoS One. It has been suggested that there is an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and errors prevent causal interpretations of these data. Szmigielski [23] collected retrospective data for Polish soldiers over 15years and showed that the prevalence of brain cancer was higher in each age group. GSM mobile phone radiation suppresses brain glucose metabolism. However, with its popularization, increasing attention has been paid to its influence on humans. Eastern J Med. An abnormal EEG is closely associated with damaged cognitive ability. The rats in the study showed increases in spatial memory and glucose transporters, and this phenomenon indicated a corresponding increase in glucose uptake. To investigate the effects of microwaves radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression, which can provide information about microwaves radiation effects on neural cells over the period from embryonic stages to infants. ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one. Kumar M, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. Most of the workers recovered when they left the source of microwave radiation. 2006;98:170713. Wang L, Li X, Peng R, Gao Y, Zhao L, Wang S, et al. Int J Radiat Biol. Protein synthesis is necessary for dendritic spine proliferation in adult brain slices. It has been reported that microwave radiation can decrease both the number and the density of dendritic spines [63]. 2005;161:3314. Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, China, You can also search for this author in For example, it can shorten reaction times so that people can better cope with danger. Effect of microwave electromagnetic fields on activity of energy metabolism cytochrome oxidase in cerebral cortical neurons of postnatal rats. Merola et al. 2005;438:18592. In broadcasting, the sources of microwaves are mainly FM radio and TV broadcasting antennas, which produce frequencies ranging from 80 to 800MHz. 2006;79:13140. Cookies policy. Glucose is the main energy source and is closely related to brain neurotransmitters and cholesterol synthesis [106]. Effect on human attention of exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones. their effects on the human body are vastly different: - Non-ionizing Radiation Frequency range: 0.1 - 1013 Hz . Kayhan H, Esmekaya MA, Saglam AS, Tuysuz MZ, Canseven AG, Yagci AM, et al. EEG is often used as a tool to diagnose Alzheimers disease [48]. Google Scholar. Most bioassay and genotoxicity or mutation studies that have been performed in vitro have reported that exposure to microwave radiation at non-thermal levels does not have mutagenic/genotoxic/carcinogenic effects. 1997;44:99104. Google Scholar. 2015;51:15865. fMicrowave Radiation Comes From Many Sources, Including: Cell phones. It influences both learning and memory in rats [67]. Microwaving Food Leads to a Negative Impact on Human Physiology & the Heart. Zhang proposed that the sex-dependent relationship between microwaves and the behavior of offspring may be related to sex hormones, and female rats may be equivalently protected by reducing oxidative stress levels. Radiat Res. After studying these effects, Hertel concluded that microwaving food leads to food degeneration. Szmigielski S. Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation. [82] exposed animals to 900MHz microwave radiation for 2h/d for 10months and removed the brain tissues. An increasing level of acetylcholine can increase the concentration of free calcium ions in synapses, but its concentration was decreased by 60% after exposure to microwave irradiation [117]. One of the bad impacts a microwave has on humans, is that some of the acids in the food people put in the microwave, gets transformed into a type of acid which turns poisonous. Verma RK, Sisodia R, Bhatia A. Radioprotective role of Amaranthus Gangeticus Linn. Finally, Hardell et al. Phot J. Krylova I, Dukhanin A, Il'in A, Kuznetsova EY, Balaeva N, Shimanovskii N, et al. 1994;8:714. Thurczy G, Kubinyi G, Bodo M, Bakos J, Szabo L. Simultaneous response of brain electrical activity (EEG) and cerebral circulation (REG) to microwave exposure in rats. 2005;161:52635. One study reported by the Interphone study group [13] showed that there was no increase in the risk of glioma or meningioma in users of mobile phones. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from 300MHz to 300GHz. Functional plasticity is affected in other ways, including the abnormal release and uptake of brain amino acids such as choline and monoamine neurotransmitters, a decrease in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitudes and spikes in long-term potentiating (LTP) in the medial perforated pathway (MPP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) [27]. Wang et al. Annu Rev Physiol. Springer Nature. Bioelectromagnetics. Mack A, Georg T, Kreis P, Eickholt BJ. The results were significant for the range from 12.518.0GHz with a service period greater than 10years. PubMed 1999;75:44756. Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. Mikrobiolohichny zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine: 1993) Serge Voychuk. Bioelectromagnetics. Sleep EEG alterations: effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Cobb et al. Wang H, Peng R, Zhou H, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, et al. Sanders AP, Joines WT. Trends Cell Biol. The hazard for human health from the electromagnetic radiations well be. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspring behavior in mice. When nerve endings are excited, the vesicles release their contents into the synaptic cleft, resulting in synaptic transmission. Google Scholar. The three groups were further divided into two groups according to their years of service (up to 10years and >10years) to investigate the effect of years of exposure to radar. For example, people who have used mobile phones for more than 10years have a clearly higher risk of brain tumors. MicroRNAs: novel mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of microwave exposure on rats hippocampus. 2005;130:591600. Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study. Google Scholar. In the population with occupational exposure, proper protective measures should be taken to avoid unnecessary harm. 2010;2010. A large number of studies have shown that microwave radiation can cause a series of adverse reactions in the central nervous system, including sleep disorders in addition to learning and memory impairments. Many adversarial effects on health causes by electromagnetic. J Natl Cancer Inst. Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. 1993;13:41322. A metabolomic approach to screening urinary metabolites upon microwave exposure in monkeys. WJZ wrote the paper and outlined this manuscript, LFW and XJH provided a detailed guidance throughout the article. Alterations of cognitive function and 5-HT system in rats after long term microwave exposure. BOOTP and DHCP.ppt anik301. Bad impacts a microwave has on our daily lives. They found that escape times were substantially decreased when the animals were trained while exposed to the phone. The increase in M1 receptor gene expression along with the impairment of novel preferences in Wi-Fi-exposed animals may suggest a possible role of the cholinergic system in the detrimental effects of Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration [100]. Johnson OL, Ouimet CC. Military Medical Research Relationship between cognition function and hippocampus structure after long-term microwave exposure. Am J Epidemiol. Hear I can show the different strength of microwave technologies. Physiol Behav. Spatial memory and learning performance and its relationship to protein synthesis of Swiss albino mice exposed to 10 GHz microwaves. Gold PE. CAS J Clin Oncol. Additionally, in the 2.4W/kg group, neuronal filopodial density and activity were lower on day 8, and there was a reduction of the dendritic spine maturity on day 14. Bioelectromagnetics. Qutob et al. Mortazavi S, Rouintan M, Taeb S, Dehghan N, Ghaffarpanah A, Sadeghi Z, et al. Nimchinsky EA, Sabatini BL, Svoboda K. Structure and function of dendritic spines. [20] divided the radar workers into three sets: control group (n=68), exposure group I (n=40, exposed to 812GHz) and exposure group II (n=58, working with radar at 12.518.0GHz). 1988;9:33745. Microwaves are widely used in broadcasting, communications and many industrial fields. Qutob S, Chauhan V, Bellier P, Yauk C, Douglas G, Berndt L, et al. 2004;25:4957. Xiong L, Sun CF, Zhang J, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zuo HY, et al. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field. Singh et al. 2015;28:1324. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. Bioelectromagnetics. Most studies have suggested that microwave radiation can cause EEG abnormalities in experimental animals and participants, but some negative results have also been reported in studies using low-power microwaves. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) is a tetramer composed of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits or two NR3 subunits that perform the functions of NMDAR [69, 70], and NMDAR plays key roles in synapse development, synaptic plasticity and neurological diseases. Cancer Res. Brain Res. Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation are electromagnetic radiation in the frequency ranges 3 kilohertz (kHz) - 300 Megahertz (MHz), and 300 MHz - 300 gigahertz (GHz), respectively. Because a childs nervous system is growing and their head is more vulnerable to radiation energy, studies that have specifically addressed whether the nervous systems of children are more susceptible to electromagnetic radiation have been performed. In contrast, a central injection of a glucose carrier inhibitor induced injury to memories [110]. Wang H, Peng R, Zhao L, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, et al. Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Thompson S, Shore RE, Stellman SD, McRee D, et al. Bioelectromagnetics. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). [101] exposed rats to microwave radiation at frequencies of 0, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz (SARs: 0, 0.59, 0.58 and 0.66mW/kg, respectively) using a transverse electromagnetic cell for 2months for 2h/d, 5 d/week. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22%only in the intermediate zone. Koivisto M, Revonsuo A, Krause C, Haarala C, Sillanmki L, Laine M, et al. Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Lizio R, Fallani FV, Blinowska K, Verrienti G, et al. J Environ Health Sci Eng. Suhhova A, Bachmann M, Karai D, Lass J, Hinrikus H. Effect of microwave radiation on human EEG at two different levels of exposure. Regarding the ultra-structure of the hippocampus, symptoms including neuronal atrophy, mitochondrial swelling, crest reduction and a disordered arrangement were observed, the rough endoplasmic reticulum exhibited cystic expansion, the number of synaptic vesicles decreased, and the synaptic cleft was widened (2.45GHz pulsed microwave field at an average power density of 1mW/cm2 for 3h/d for up to 30days [45] and an average power density of 2.5, 5, or 10mW/cm2 for 6min/d for up to 1month resulted in an average calculated SAR of 1.05, 2.1, and 4.2W/kg, respectively [46]). Structure, development, and plasticity of dendritic spines. 2001;12:72931. In the group treated with 0.8W/kg, there was no significant change. 2010;3:4650. The frequencies of these devices are listed in Table1. Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. Curr Opin Neurobiol. Reactive oxygen species act through p38 MAPK to limit the lifespan of hematopoietic stem cells. The role of microRNAs in cancer. millimeter, or equivalently. To determine the precise dose-effect relationship between microwave radiation and its biological effects, further detailed studies must be performed. To investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress and 2.45GHz Wi-Fi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats, control, Wi-Fi-exposed, restrained and both Wi-Fi-exposed and restrained groups were established. J Neurosci. Mortazavi et al. EEG data reflect the functional state of the brain by enlarging the autologous weak bioelectricity recorded by the EEG-recording instrument [47]. Fragopoulou et al. [111] found that the rate of glucose metabolism in the brains of rats was lower after short-term exposure to microwave radiation, and the blood glucose management reduced the damage that was caused by microwave radiation due to the decreased glucose uptake (2.45MHz, 1mW/cm2, continuous radiation for 30 d at 3h/d), as were learning and memory capacity. Kwon MS, Vorobyev V, Knnl S, Laine M, Rinne JO, Toivonen T, et al. PubMedGoogle Scholar. It is widely accepted that protein synthesis occurs in neuronal dendrites and may be the cellular basis of learning and memory, during which local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity are closely linked to the efficiency of communication between neurons. 2008;29:52738. Ito K, Hirao A, Arai F, Takubo K, Matsuoka S, Miyamoto K, et al. With the increasing number of applications that use microwave technology, its negative effects on the human body have attracted attention. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats. To investigate whether exposure of rat brains to GMS microwaves induced DNA breaks and changes in gene expression, Belyaev et al. Article Symptoms included headache, paresthesia, diarrhea, malaise and lassitude. 1999;4:102. The visual reaction time and short-term memory of healthy male and female workers at a radar site with a frequency range of 218GHz was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test or modified Wechsler Memory Scale test. Int J Radiat Biol. eliminating microwave and RF sources. However, there was no change in the frequency of AMPA mEPSCs or the amplitudes of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) mEPSCs. [92] found that 900MHz microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones increased protein carbonyl levels in the brains of rats, suggesting that 900MHz microwave radiation can alter some biomolecules such as proteins. Numerous mechanisms can activate oxidative stress, including electromagnetic radiation, and thereby cause molecular damage. [40] also repeated the experiment only and found that radial-arm maze performance in rats remained unchanged. 1992;6:379. Vorobyov et al. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Adair ER. [85] found that protein levels were reduced in rat brains following microwave radiation, which may have been caused by the excessive consumption or a reduction of the synthesis of proteins, and reduced protein synthesis can be caused by the following processes: (1) excessive activation of RNA enzymes; (2) mRNA consumption or the formation and maturation of RNA enzymes. PubMed Central Additionally, people exposed to military microwave sources were more vulnerable to brain tumors. Xu et al. However, a recent report [3] published by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) noted that discussions about the thermal and non-thermal effects are misleading. [27] found that college students visual reaction times were significantly shorter after 10min of phone-induced microwave radiation. 2007;210:63544. 2005;22:32931. CAS [40] concluded that despite the differences in the conditions used in the experiments, space limitations and whether the wall of the maze was clear did not substantially influence outcomes. PubMed Acta Neurol Belg. CAS 2012;25:1828. The results of EEG and analyses of the structure of the brain after radiation have also confirmed the influence of microwaves. Exp Neurobiol. Wang L, Hu X, Peng R. Influence of long-term microwave radiation on contents of amino acids and monoamines in urine of Wistar rats. Digestive System: The unstable catabolism of microwaved foods alters their elemental food substances, causing disorders in the digestive system. Modulation of HSP response in SH-SY5Y cells following exposure to microwaves of a mobile phone., DOI: Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazards include radars and missile systems. Kan P, Simonsen SE, Lyon JL, Kestle JR. Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis. Behav Brain Res. PubMed Central Google Scholar. Wang L, Peng R, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang S, Zhao L, et al. J Radiat Proc. These results explain the genetic mechanisms by which microwave radiation induces damage to learning and memory. Behav Brain Res. Kang D, Hamasaki N. Mitochondrial transcription factor a in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Decreased expression of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes of oxidative phosphorylation in association neocortex in Alzheimer disease. 2007;27:6024. Szmigielski S. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones. 2012;3:3440. 2014;8:63. Microwaves can influence mitochondria by damaging their structure [45], reducing ATP levels and affecting the activity of relevant enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome coxidase (COX) [119,120,121]. In 57% of military devices, Polish soldiers work in occupational protection zones. Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Erdal ME, Erdal N, Ay OI, Ay ME, et al. 2006;165:63644. Vorobyov V, Janac B, Pesic V, Prolic Z. Resulting Effects on the Human Body. Effects of isothermal 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the mammalian cell Ci ihff fihl2MHdifdi i Bi l h. C Spr '05 Inan, OT Thermal effects of RF he above diagram depicts the electric field alternations, at a frequency f, of the Microwave radiation can induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, which lead to hippocampal neuronal and non-neuronal apoptosis via the oxidative damage of cellular constituents (i.e., nucleic acids, proteins and lipids) and subsequent over expression of p53, which up-regulates Bax and down-regulates pro-caspase-3 and full-length/uncleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) 1, eventually inducing neuronal degeneration via apoptosis [76]. frequency range from 1GHz to 10^6 GHz. In the rat hippocampus, glucose uptake plays an important role in spatial learning and memory processes. Nature. Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. The results showed that in normal EEGs, the (3.26.0Hz) and 2 (17.830.5Hz) waves were mainly concentrated in the cortex, while the (6.017.8Hz) waves were mainly concentrated in the hypothalamus. The authors therefore proposed that synaptic conduction disorders are associated with damage to cognitive functions. Dasdag S, Balci K, Celik M, Batun S, Kaplan A, Bolaman Z, et al. Cordless phone radiation effect flows in a human body same way in the mobile phone [13]. 2017;38:106976. 2008;49:16370. [59] exposed Wistar albino pregnant rats to a 2.45GHz Wi-Fi signal for 2h/d throughout the gestation period and found that the neurodevelopment, cerebral stress equilibrium and cholinesterase activity of the offspring were affected. daily life. Lnn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M. Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk. This phenomenon may be explained by the varied radiation dosage adopted in these studies. Dasdag et al. Mol Cell Biol. Article California Privacy Statement, After exposure, the levels of 2 waves in the hypothalamus increased more than those in the cortex, leading to a significant reduction in the deviation of the two EGGs. After 28days, the levels of Glu and Tau in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid were lower, indicating that the cognitive damage induced by microwave radiation is associated with a decrease in Glu [66, 67]. Long term and excessive use of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation alter microRNA expression in brain. However, these effects were not observed in radial arm maze tests. 2013;17:711. Location of gliomas in relation to mobile telephone use: a case-case and case-specular analysis. Mitochondria morphologic changes and metabolic effects of rat hippocampus after microwave irradiation. 2004;996:8996. Neuroreport. This damage plays a key role in the structural and functional changes that are accelerated by neuronal degeneration. 2009;27:556572. radiation with wavelengths. Based on this background, in this review, we first summarized the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system, including the epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and mechanisms of underlying brain dysfunction from the perspective of synaptic structures and functions, oxidative stress and apoptosis, protein synthesis, genes and individual susceptibility and energy metabolism. Int J Epidemiol. Effect of mobile radiation on health ppt . Impairment of long-term potentiation induction is essential for the disruption of spatial memory after microwave exposure. 2023 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The interaction of microwaves with matter other than metallic conductors will be to rotate molecules and produce heat as result of that molecular motion. Sharma A, Sisodia R, Bhatnagar D, Saxena VK. 2008;169:3845. Brain electrical activity originates from the membrane potential of the neuron itself and the fluctuation in membrane potential. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to an electromagnetic field. Gage FH, Kelly P, Bjorklund A. & Hu, XJ. Electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed by organisms, in which it causes a series of physiological and functional changes. [84] and Sharma et al. However, other reports have indicated that unlike ionizing radiation, the microwave radiation produced by mobile phones does not possess sufficient energy to directly damage DNA. [72] found that 2.856GHz, 50mW/cm2 pulsed microwave radiation caused persistent spatial memory impairments, disordered neurotransmitters, and varying degrees of damage in the hippocampus and synapses. The final apoptosis score in the exposed group was significantly reduced, and the total antioxidant capacity and catalysis observed in the experimental group was increased. Li-Feng Wang or Xiang-Jun Hu. Brain Res. Sci Total Environ. Concurrently, the discovery that microwaves have positive biological effects has presented new challenges for research and applications in this field. Damage to learning abilities and reduction of glucose utilization in the limbic system of adult rats are closely linked [109]. J Pharm Sci. Bioelectromagnetics. PubMed Brain cancer with induction periods of less than 10 years in young military radar workers. Wang LF, Tian DW, Li HJ, Gao YB, Wang CZ, Zhao L, et al. Studies have extensively explored the underlying mechanisms by which microwaves influence learning and memory functions, especially synaptic structures and functions, oxidative stress and apoptosis, protein synthesis, genes and individual susceptibility and energy metabolism. Behav Brain Res. The authors found that 2.4GHz microwave radiation reduced the expression of some miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p and miR-107 [98]. A popular focus among researchers is the damage that microwave radiation causes in the central nervous system, in which it can impair learning and memory. Merola P, Marino C, Lovisolo G, Pinto R, Laconi C, Negroni A. One reason for this difference may be that the water maze experiment is driven by aversion, whereas the arm maze experiment is driven by appetite. 2016;397:2239. Preece A, Iwi G, Davies-Smith A, Wesnes K, Butler S, Lim E, et al. This study also revealed the dose-dependent relationship of the modulated microwave effect: decreasing the SAR 100-fold reduced the associated changes in the EEG by three- to six-fold and decreased the number of affected subjects but did not completely eliminate the effects. Lai et al. The effects of hyperthermia and hyperthermia plus microwaves on rat brain energy metabolism. Sage C, Carpenter D, Hardell L. Comments on SCENIHR: opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Blood biochemical parameters of the radio-link station. Gold PE. 2017;52:23947. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.019W/kg with a sinusoidal modulation of 400Hz) or non-modulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.023W/kg) for 2h daily for 1month.