Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the polysaccharide comprised only glucose units. Ahn, G.Y., Eo, HS., Kim, D. et al. Chem. Kasaai, Mohammad R. (2012). statement and In vitro studies with human cadaver skin is a viable, ethical, and economical alternative for in vivo animal studies. (1999). Journal of American Chemical Society, 76 (20), 5041-5052. Surface morphology study of dextran by scanning electron microscopy showed the porous web like structure. These results could be attributed to the differences in the in vivo and in vitro skin nutrients supply; with in vivo studies, the skin tissue is supplied nutrients directly from the blood vessels, but the human cadaver skin is supplied from the media, therefore, the skin tissue regeneration efficiency is low [26,27,28]. FITC-dextran solution was prepared at 1mM in PBS. Calculation of MarkHouwinkSakurada (MHS) equation viscometric constants for chitosan in any solventtemperatura system using experimental reported viscometric constants data. Anal. 151-166. Human cadaver skin has been confirmed as alive skin tissue through analysis of its morphology and enzymes, and its usefulness as an alternative skin membrane in drug permeation experiments has been verified [20]. Walkenhorst, S.; Olivier, R. (2002). This situation is mainly the result of using dextans, solvent, additives, etc. Kam Y, Sacks H, Kaplan KM, Stern M, Levin G. Radio frequency-microchannels for transdermal delivery: characterization of skin recovery and delivery window. European Polymer Journal, 37, 619-622. where (poise) is the viscosity, the (g/cm3) fluid density, and t the liquid draining time (s) subscript zero is referred to solvent, and without subscript is referred to the solution [40], and inherent viscosity is i = r -1. Carbohydrate Research, 340, 811-826. Bohdanecky, Miloslav (1996). One day before the experiment, the skin was stabilized in the skin culture medium. However, the currently available transdermal systems are limited by low drug permeability across the skin due to the lipophilic barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost skin layer of the skin [3,4,5]; the methods favor low molecular mass, and lipophilic molecules, making it difficult to exploit the transdermal route for large and water-soluble molecules such as proteins and peptides. ; Ghosh, T.K. A long-chain polymer molecule in solution takes on a somewhat kinked or curled shape, intermediate between a tightly curled mass (coil) and a rigid linear configuration. A simple way of universalizing the measurements is shown in figure 4 where there is a curve at each temperature for every molecular weight. Chem. Kasaai, M. R.; Arul, J.; Charlet, G. (2000). Figure3 shows a magnified image of human cadaver skin with microchannels formed by the microporation device (250kHz) and the skin closure over time. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Determination of the intrinsic viscosity has been the most used measurement in the last 60 years. These results suggest that fibroblasts proliferate and migrate under the SC, and regenerate the skin. All authors have consented to the submission of this manuscript for publication. 2018 Aug 9;23(8):1984. doi: 10.3390/molecules23081984. Figure5 shows the cumulative amount of the FITC-dextran (M.W. These studies were again focused on investigating the hydrodynamic properties of the polymer molecules, their hydrodynamic radius in relation to their radius of gyration and the coherence of the simulation results with polymer theory. Structure Properties of Dextran. 2005;304(1):27486. Here we have the hydrodynamic radius estimate for the 3kDa dextran and 1.5 kDa dextran by the Zetasizer calculator, thanks to Alan. Alan F Rawle, t Format). Although we didnt conduct assay for inflammation, we could not find any inflammation symptoms such as redness, blisters, cracked, and thickening. Rheology of dextran solutions. Saudi Pharm J. Advances in chemistry series Washington, DC: American Chemical Society., pp. These hydrodynamic parameters show that these polysaccharides behave as a compact rigid sphere and contract by the increase of temperature (RH decreases) for the Mw range from 8.8 to 200kDa. 2015;32(5):170413. Huggins, Maurice L. (1942). pp13-21. 2004;25(9):155967. In vivo iontophoretic delivery of salmon calcitonin across microporated skin. Kumar SV, Tarun P, Kumar TA. Colloid and Polymer Science, 286, 1223-1231. The intrinsic viscosity classical theory of random coils at conditions []0 predicts the quotient a0 = d ln[]0/d ln M to decrease from unity to 0.5 as the chain length increases. WebFluorescent and biotinylated dextrans are routinely employed to trace neuronal projections. A single frequency laser is directed to the sample contained in a cuvette. Search Intrinsic viscosities of polyelectrolytes in the absence and in the presence of extra salt: Consequences of the stepwise conversion of dextran into a polycation. Peptide and protein transdermal drug delivery. Results and Discussion The microscopic dynamics of proteins are probed in a light scattering experiment. Degrees of long-chain branching in dextrans. (2007). On single point determination of intrinsic viscosity. Alternatives to animal testing: a review. (2004). (more or less, with a hydrodynamic radius of less than 100 nm) to cross from the vasculature into the interstitium. Synthesis and characterization of blue dextrans. The Mark-Houwink a constant is close to 0.5 in poor solvents. Characterization of high molecular weight dextran produced by Weissella cibaria CMGDEX3. Using the polymer standards, a plot of the ln [] vs ln Mw usually gives a straight line. 2012;27(3):20212. (2000). (2013). Determination of constants, kM-H and a, from the intrinsic viscosity data, requires a series of monodisperse polymer samples with known molecular weight or a series of polydisperse polymer samples with known viscosity average molecular weights, Mv. Hindered diffusion of dextran and ficoll in microporous membranes. where c is the solute concentration (g/cm3), [] is the intrinsic viscosity (cm3/g), and kH represents Huggins constants (cm3/g). The exponent a is a function of polymer geometry, and varies from 0.5 to 2 and exponent is dimensionless. The calculation of Mark-Houwink parameters is carried out by the graphic representation of the following equation: where kMH (cm3/g) and a are Mark-Houwink constants, depending on the type of polymer, solvent, and temperature of intrinsic viscosity determinations [46]. These constants can be determined experimentally by measuring the intrinsic viscosity of several polymer samples for which the molecular weight has been determined by an independent method (i.e. Pharmaceutical Quality Dextran 40 is available from Pharmacosmos as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) as excipient for final formulation, drug product, for medical devices, for production of solutions for injection and infusion and much more. The hydrodynamic radius R h, defined as the radius of a hard sphere that diffuses at the same rate as the solute, takes these effects into account. Immediately after 2, 5, and 10 times microporations, 97.1432.39, 80.5715.51, and 82.3916.49m sizes of micropores were formed on the skin, respectively. Biomaterials, 22, 1891-1898. ; De Jong, S.J. 2012 Sep 1;90(1):441-6. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.063. Biophysical Journal, 27, 177-181. Morris, G.A. Although, intrinsic viscosity is a molecular parameter that can be interpreted in terms of molecular conformation, it does not offer as high resolution on molecular structure as other methods such as Light Scattering, Circular Dichroism, Sedimentation Velocity, Sedimentation Equilibrium, Size Exclusion Chromatography Coupled to Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (SEC-MALLS), High-performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), NMR, X-rays, etc. The values of Mark-Houwink parameters could be universalized with certain precautions, being an indication for the calculation of molecular weight in the temperature range of 20-40C. The fast increasing of these polyglucosans for medical, industrial and research purposes motivated a survey of the types obtainable. 2018 Jan;184(1):1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12010-017-2522-4. WebThe micelles produced at pH 4.6 have a spherical shape and their size is dependent on the Maillard reaction: reaction time, molar ratio of casein to dextran, and molecular weight of dextran used. volume24, Articlenumber:22 (2020) Comparison of single-point and dilution procedures. WebAmines per 70KDa dextran Theeffectofchargerepulsiononthe hydrodynamicradiuscanbeseenwithRh increaseswithchargedensity.Charge repulsioncausesthehydrodynamicradius toincrease.Withincreasingcharge,the dextranprogressivelyunfolded.Evena lowlevelofaminationcausesthepolymer tounfold. It has been found that, when applied to water treatment, it can effectively act on refractory organic matter in wastewater through thermal decomposition and water molecular action to produce free Carbohydrate Polymers, 68, 477-488. ; Bos, G.W. TdB Labs produce a wide range of FITC-derivatives (490 nm/520 nm) with a mean molecular weight ranging from 4 kDa to 2000 kDa. Viscosity of aqueous solutions of polysaccharides and hydrophobically modified polysaccharides: Application of Fedors equation. The value of qM-H varies from one sample to another one, because it is a function of a and the average molecular weights (Mv, Mw). Transdermal drug delivery: overcoming the skins barrier function. (2013). Guner, A.; Kibarer, G. (2001). In general, Mv is not experimentally accessible, whereas other average molecular weights are accessible. 43-1, 115-147. J. Phys. WebThe micelles produced at pH 4.6 have a spherical shape and their size is dependent on the Maillard reaction: reaction time, molar ratio of casein to dextran, and molecular weight of dextran used. J Control Release. By studying the molecular weights of various solutions of polymer, Solomon-Ciuta arrived at the formula which allowed the calculation of the intrinsic viscosity of polymer solutions by a single viscosity determination. Webdextran hydrodynamic radius. (2007). ; Patel, T.R. GYA primarily conducted research. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Radiofrequency is a well-known medical technique with expanded application in electrosurgery for laparoscopic medical procedures and in dermatology, for sebaceous glands ablation in acne treatment [12, 13], and treatment of photoaging skin symptoms, including wrinkles and hyperpigmentation [14]. (1998). Increased TEWL values are evidence of micropores formation. Coviello, T.; Matricardi, P.; Marianecci, C.; Alhaique, F. (2007). The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential. The 70-kDa FITC dextran reached the jejunum after 15 min and passed the entire small intestine within 1 h after its administration, demonstrating that 4-kDa FITC The regeneration of micropores in the human cadaver skin caused by microporation was confirmed using an optical microscope and haematoxylin/eosin (H&E) staining. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 10K, and c M.W. In this work, hydrodynamic properties are investigated in different dextran aqueous solutions with different molecular weights (8.8-2000kDa), in a temperature range from 20C to 50C. Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. HSE and DK helped to porate the skin and to measure TEWL. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 60, 1650-1662. Covis, Rudy; Ladaviere, Catherine; Desbrieres, Jacques; Marie, Emmanuelle; Durand, Alain. WebDiffusivity of 2000 kDa Dextran was significantly lower for both hydrogel formulations, but was insensitive to collagen concentration, likely due to a larger hydrodynamic diameter ( dh ~ 70 nm) on order of the collagen mesh size. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. H&E stained images were analyzed using Image J software. Microporation techniques for enhanced delivery of therapeutic agents. Carbohydrate Polymers, 36, 319-326. Home > 2022 > Junho > 22 > Uncategorized > dextran hydrodynamic radius. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 277, 99-104. Unperturbed dimensions and the theta temperature of dextran in ethylene glycol solutions. Webprotein hydrodynamic radius was observed with increasing protein concentration (in the range 0.25-2 mM) in both the absence and presence of 8 M urea. ; Yevlampieva N.P. (2001). The dextran used is from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512F which is essentially a linear -(1-6)-linked glucose chain with however a low percentage (2-5%) of -(1-3) branches distributed along the chain4. Macromolecules, 29, 2265-2268. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 38, 2591-2598. dextran hydrodynamic radius. The molecular weight of dextran samples can be obtained by a variety of methods including light scattering, HPLC/SEC, sedimentation, osmometry and end-group analysis. 4K, b M.W. 2019;9(3-S):9726. Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Red blood cell rouleaux formation in dextran solution: dependence on polymer conformation. The intrinsic viscosity can be easily calculated by the Solomon-Ciuta single-point equation [44, 45]. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of individual samples of dextran, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and polyoxyethylene over a range of molecular weights (1,500 The calculated dextran molecular weights are corroborated by those tabulated data by the manufacturer with a relative error lower than 10%, being the exception dextrans 580 and 2000kDa with the highest relative error. Microporation applications for enhancing drug delivery. Ann Surg Oncol. Mark-Houwink values confirm that for these conditions dextrans behave as rigid spheres with a tendency at compaction as temperature increases. a-d Haematoxylin/eosin-stained histological sections of human cadaver skin sample and e quantified data using ImageJ for different time periods after microporation. (1987). Palmuti Braga Vettoria, Mary Helen; Martins Franchetti, Sandra Mara; Contiero, Jonas (2012). Thus, it is accepted that, for every flexible-chain polymer in a (ideal) solvent, there is a universal value of 0 = 2.1-2.5x1023mol-1 [52]. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), a common phenomenon that can produce local excessive temperature, high pressure and large amount of energy. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal Deng H, Konopka CJ, Prabhu S, Sarkar S, Medina NG, Fayyaz M, Arogundade OH, Vidana Gamage HE, Shahoei SH, Nall D, Youn Y, Dobrucka IT, Audu CO, Joshi A, Melvin WJ, Gallagher KA, Selvin PR, Nelson ER, Dobrucki LW, Swanson KS, Smith AM. Static and Dynamic Light-Scattering Solution Behavior of Pullulan and Dextran in Comparison. WebTo address this perception, in the current study, FITC-dextran of different MWs (10, 70 and 150 kDa) was used to model the transdermal delivery of low MW biotherapeutics and mAbs with MWs of approximately 150 kDa.
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