Validity and reliability of a new test of upper body power. Mayhew, JL, Bemben, MG, Rohrs, DM, Ware, J, and Bemben, DA. Data collection for this study occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. throw the ball without crossing the line. No resistance training activity was performed before testing on any testing day. This timed test requires subjects to climb up a ramp a vertical distance of 33 cm and a horizontal distance of 3.79 m. This test was practical in nature because it involved lower body movements and muscle groups that are similar to those used in normal daily activities. The SEM for the ICC was 42.7 N. The BAPs revealed 94% of the differences between day 1 and 2 scores were within the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference. Testing with medicine balls requires very little set-up time. purpose: to measure power, particularly of the upper body, and evaluats throwing distance and technique. Although lower body strength and power often receive the most attention relative to their relationship with functional independence, the importance of upper body strength and power cannot be ignored, because many activities of daily living such as carrying groceries, taking out the trash, and lifting children are related to upper body strength and power (1,2). B., & Owen, G. To assess the validity and test-retest reliability of the SMBT in older adults, the modified explosive push-up (EPU) done off a floor mounted force plate was used as the criterion measure, and, similar to Davis et al. These current reliability measures were similar to that reported for medicine ball throws in older African American women (2) and kindergarten children (6) and a like task (i.e., seated shot put) in college males (15). Participants started by sitting at a 90 angle against a designated wall with their legs straight out and their head resting on the wall. Beachle and Earle highlight the importance of power, describing it as the attribute that allows athletes to overcome gravity, accelerate the body through space, and accelerate a ball across the court or playing field (2). To accomplish this, participants performed the warmup protocol and the SMBT in groups of five. The reliability of the test from the ICC coefficient was R = 0.989. Subjects performed 3 trials of throws for each weight medicine ball (1.5 and 3.0 kg) on each of 2 testing days. Contributions from leading physical therapists, athletic trainers, and orthopedic surgeons give you a comprehensiv e, clinically relevant understanding of common sports-related injuries and help you ensure the most eective therapeutic . in cricket for moving between the wickets and in fielding. The BAPs revealed 94% of the differences between day 1 and 2 scores were within the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference. Test-retest reliability for the EPU was r = 0.944, R = 0.969. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. All medicine ball trials were conducted at the same time of the day. High-speed power training: A novel approach to resistance training in older men and women. Gender is another consideration when assessing muscular power. Cools AM, Vanderstukken F, Vereecken F, Duprez M, Heyman K, Goethals N, Johansson F. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Data is temporarily unavailable. Future research should validate or adjust the quartile rankings for the population used in this study. Future research should aim to gather a larger sample size and complete the same procedures to validate and expand on the reference norms. Scott R. Johnson, Pamela J. Wojnar, William J. The effect of practical resistance training intervention on mobility in independent, community-dwelling older adults. The SMBT was conducted no longer than three minutes following the warmup protocol. var months = new Array ("January","February","March","April","May","June","July", Pearson correlation coefficients (i.e. controlling of movement and execution of strokes. In. This study aimed to provide an age, gender and sport-based normative database for three functional shoulder tests: Y Balance Test - Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST), and Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT). Horizontal distance thrown in the SMBT has been validated as a measure of upper body explosiveness in older adults 2, children 6, college students 7, and amateur rugby sevens players 8. In: BEASHEL, P and TAYLOR, J. In addition to the lack of normative reference values, there is no official testing protocol for the SMBT. The reliability of the seated medicine ball throw for distance. New York. The resistance training class initially included 42 seniors who agreed to participate in the study, but 9 of those subjects failed to complete all testing sessions, thereby resulting in the final 33 subjects used for analysis. "August","September","October","November","December") pre-test: Explain the test procedures to the subject. upon which subsequent performance evaluations and A tape measure was placed on the ground at the front end of the subjects' chair and stretched out to a distance of 10 m. Subjects were instructed to sit in the chair with their backs against the chair back for support and their feet flat on the ground. J Sport Rehabil. The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for the SMBT. Normative reference values for the studies mentioned above were either not calculated or not reported, thereby limiting direct comparisons (13, 19, 24, 29). While the current study assumes that all participants gave maximal effort for every attempt, there is no metric to prove that assumption. A player's balance and coordination is seen as one of the most important aspects of cricket fitness, followed by speed and power. evaluate individuals against normative data and assess change over time in healthy, aging, and injured populations [1], as well as athletic populations [4]. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Abstract and Figures IN CRICKET, THE ABILITY TO THROW A BALL AT HIGH VELOCITY WITH GREAT ACCURACY IS CRITICAL TO SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE AND OFTEN DETERMINES THE OUTCOME OF MATCHES. Being flexible enables greater range of movement 2016. Similar to the push-up test, the seated medicine ball throw is another valid, low-risk, simple assessment requiring minimal equipment (8, 14,17,20). Maintenance of muscular power may also be critical for sustaining independence later in life. Sartorio, A., Proietti, M., Marinone, P. G., Agosti, F., Adorni, F., & Lafortuna, C. L. (2004). This procedure was repeated again 72 hours later. Upper and lower limb muscle power relationships in mobility limited older adults. These precautions included limiting how many locations the researcher(s) traveled to, however utilizing multiple locations would have likely increased the sample size and positively impacted the robustness of the data. A brief review and pilot study. The effects of eccentric, velocity-based training on strength and power in collegiate athletes. Evaluating upper-body strength and power from a single test: the ballistic push-up. Skinfold measures should The PubMed wordmark and PubMed logo are registered trademarks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). 2016 Dec;24(12):3838-3847. doi: 10.1007/s00167-015-3755-9. Borms, D., & Cools, A. Abdominal muscle function should also be tested, for example How to get on these lists? After receiving a verbal signal from the researcher, participants pushed the medicine ball in a chest-pass motion as forcefully as possible without their back or their head leaving the wall (Figure 2). Medicine Balls or the similar Power Balls are commonly used in fitness training and for testing of the upper body strength and explosive power in athletes. Some studies use protocols requiring participants to sit at a 45 on a bench (7, 11, 12, 21), while others require a 90 angle against a wall (5, 14, 25, 30). Second, the SMBT is inexpensive and easy to perform. (2018). They were then instructed to drop the ball straight down on to the tape measure. that players can reduce the effect of fatigue during long The sit eCollection 2022 Jun. Because both medicine ball weights displayed similar validity and reliability, the practitioner can meet the needs of a diverse, older adult client base. Results: Males threw farther (p < 0.05) in the BLF (8.9 1.5 m) than in the OHB (8.6 1.6 m). A comparison power test using weight machines may be more appropriate (9,13). 11. The results of these studies indicate that throwing distances between participants seated at different angles are similar. Participation was voluntary, and participants were able to withdraw at any time without penalty. Lockie, R. G., Callaghan, S. J., Jordan, C. A., Luczo, T. M., & Jeffriess, M. D. (2013). 2. Effects of medicine ball training on fitness performance of high-school physical education students. Those who failed to complete the study did not report any deleterious effects of testing but missed follow-up testing because of travel and other such training interruptions. The establishment of quartile rankings can help guide further normative reference data research among this population. Please try after some time. Laboratory and field-based evaluation of short-term effort with maximal intensity in individuals with intellectual disabilities. In addition, normative reference values might particularly be valuable in high-school-age individuals. The ICC values of the 1.5- and 3.0-kg SMBT were R = 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. 14. T1 vs T2, T2 vs T3, T3 vs T1) for both female and males at age groupings of 12-13 and 14-15. Both the PPM and ICC coefficients exceeded 0.95. PMC The indian team has recently added the 2km run test to their assessments. A sub-maximal test of aerobic fitness You may want to explain to the subject about the optimal angle for maximal distance, and to allow some practice attempts. advantages: this test is easy and quick to perform for an individual, with the equipment required cheap. Thirty-three community dwelling older adults (20 men, 13 women) with a mean age of 72.4 5.2 years completed this study and were used for analysis. var md = new Date(document.lastModified) Please enable scripts and reload this page. The present study results will allow for the development of a standard to assess physical education students upper-body muscular power using the SMBT. J Athl Train. and Borms and Cools (5, 25). The BAPs revealed 94% of the differences between day 1 and 2 scores were within the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference. doi: 10.7717/peerj.13564. Their results . See also the similar Softball Throw Test. The concurrent validity of the SMBT as measured against the maximal Fz from the EPU was moderate. The aforementioned PCCs ranged from r = 0.85-0.97. Participants were considered untrained. This will enable the practitioner to better individualize their strength and conditioning program to optimize outcomes for the older adult. Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotator cuff strength testing using a hand-held dynamometer: reference values for overhead athletes. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help where the test would be contraindicated. There are also a video of a fitness testing session of the Australia Cricket team. The relative underuse of the SMBT has resulted in a lack of comparable normative reference values. Modified EPUs were performed 48 hours after the last seated medicine ball trials. Partner gets / catches rebound - Throw ball to target on floor onto the wall 8. (2019). The ages of the participants were 12-15 years, meaning that the norms established will only apply to those age groups in males and females, respectively. Physical education teachers issued a public announcement to their classes and asked those who wished to participate in the study to obtain written parental permission and return the signed informed assent before or on the day of data collection. Similarly, a study by Hacket et al. Cronin, J. Obviously, the use of a lighter ball allows for further throw distance. + " " + md.getFullYear()); Ikeda Y, Kijima K, Kawabata K, Fuchimoto T, Ito A.. Mayhew JL, Bird M, Cole ML, Koch AJ, Jacques JA, Ware JS, Buford BN, Fletcher KM.. Salonia MA, Chu DA, Cheifetz PM, Freidhoff GC.. Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.. Maximal strength tests for These findings further suggest that the SMBT is a reliable measure of upper-body muscular power. The SEM for the ICC was 19.1 cm. For example, college-age men (age 20.3 1.1) years) seated at a 45 threw the ball a mean distance of 4.1 0.5 m, while a similar group (age 23.1 3 years) seated at a 90 threw the ball a mean distance of 4.1 0.5 m (5, 12). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of a new upper body medicine ball push-press (MBP-P) test. In approximately 400 medicine ball throws, with a variety of subjects, no injuries or complaints of discomfort occurred. (2016). Keyword Highlighting Before participating in the SMBT on the day of testing, participants completed a brief questionnaire then were measured for height and body mass. The spot where the front end of the ball hit the measuring tape was recorded. Davis, KL, Kang, M, Boswell, BB, DuBose, KD, Altman, SR, and Binkely, HM. Mean scores increased with age groups (Table 4 and 5), as did mean height and body mass (Table 2 and 3). 13. As a construct, upper-body muscular power should be easily measurable and comparable to normative reference values. Adams, KJ, Swank, AM, Berning, JM, Sevene-Adams, PG, Barnard KL, and Shimp-Bowerman, J. Throw ball to target on wall. Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil. As such, comparing results across studies is difficult (12, 21). The distance the medicine ball landed from the participant was then measured using a measuring tape. Data from the force plate were collected at a frequency of 1,250 Hz. However, nutrition and hydration status was not controlled. The SMBT is a highly reliable and reasonably valid test for assessing upper body muscular power in the older adult. Influence of gender, age and BMI on lower limb muscular power output in a large population of obese men and women. In 8'S - pass and move down to end of queue - Discuss the different types of throws and catches found in Cricket, Rounders and Softball. The SMBT is also strongly correlated to other tests of muscular power, such as the rope-climbing test (r = 0.99, p < 0.05) and the Wingate test (r = 0.655, p < 0.05) (11, 23). This normative reference data was established with participants seated at 90 and using a 2 kg medicine ball with a 19.5 m diameter. 12. 2016 Oct;51(10):789-796. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-51.12.06. or the Cooper 12 minute run. J Strength Cond Res 25(8): 2344-2348, 2011Practitioners training the older adult may benefit from a low-cost, easy-to-administer field test of upper body power. You should consider the validity, reliability, costs and ease of use for each test. THere are also a few tests using other sports balls such as a basketball or baseball. Drive the med ball; do not throw it like a basketball. On the contrary, subjects commented that they enjoyed the test. There is also Cricket Ball Throw Test for testing throwing power and technique. to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without A small cardboard box (10 cm high) was placed on the force plate under each subjects' chest to standardize starting position. The flexibility tests should be specific to the actions When considering factors affecting maximum distance thrown using the SMBT, researchers should also consider chronological age. Prior to the throw, the measuring tape was placed on the ground, starting (0 meters) at the most distal point of the medicine ball when the participant completely flexed their arms (approximately 2 cm from the pelvis of the person performing the SMBT). Whether it is the athletes body or a foreign object such as a ball, the ability to accelerate objects through space is essential for many sports. The BAPs revealed 94% of the differences between day 1 and 2 scores were within the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference. 2021 Dec 21;5(3):E99-E103. Research has shown a good correlation between these tests and other measures of explosive power in athletes. In the current study, correlation coefficients for between-trials comparisons for males and females ranged from r = 0.85-0.97 which ware similar to that noted by Beckham et al. var md = new Date() (3). Researchers also calculated quartile rankings from mean distances to establish normative reference data. Gillespie, J and Keenum, S. A validity and. Reliability measures were assessed using Pearson product-moment (PPM) correlation coefficients, intraclass coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots (BAPs). PCCS or r) were calculated for trial pairs (i.e. For The SMBT is less costly and less complicated to incorporate into a testing battery than other assessments such as the bench press, rope-climb, pull-up, and force-plate plyometric push-up as it requires little technical or equipment expertise and minimal prerequisite strength and technique requirements (7, 9, 11, 31). Practice trials and rest periods were the same as with the medicine ball throws, and all testing was conducted at the same time of day. also suitable. Participants started by holding a 2 kg medicine ball against their chest. This information would provide baseline metrics by which coaches and educators could compare levels of either trained athletes or untrained individuals. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies 3. var md = new Date(document.lastModified) var months = new Array ("January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December") From the positive portion of the force-time curve, peak vertical force (Fz) was obtained. PCCS or r) were calculated for trial pairs (i.e. Excess body fat would affect the cricketer's ability to document.write(" CITE THIS PAGE: "+ author + ", "" + document.title + "." Topend Sports Website, "+ published + ", "+ url + ", Accessed " + md.getDate()+" " + months[md.getMonth()] + " " + md.getFullYear()); Normative data for the Wall Throw Test The following normative data, for 15 to 16 year olds, is available for this test (Beashel and Taylor (1997)[1]) Age Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Poor 15-16 years >35 30 - 35 25 - 29 20 - 24 <20 Normative Data for Standing Jump Test . The small sample size may have increased standard deviations of scores and raises questions of external validity. . Strength versus muscle power-specific resistance training in community-dwelling older adults. Test validity refers to the degree to which the test measures what it claims to measure and the extent to which inferences, conclusions, and decisions based on test scores are appropriate and meaningful. Fink, H. H., & Mikesky, A. E. (2018).