To see what it actually means, consider that if according to the commonly accepted view Ramsses II lived between 1279-1212 BC, the New Chronology moves him to 943-877 BC. This would have entailed the design, construction, and maintenance of large urban centers throughout Canaan, including the building of massive fortification systems and temples at many sites. 1, The Bible - From Myth to History. They completely destroy Rohl's chronology, so he hardly mentions them. Kenneth Kitchen believes there is evidence that the bulk of Solomon's treasure was taken to Egypt (1989). And for good reason - they utterly destroy his reconstruction. 674-81 in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, vol. The interrelated chronologies of ancient Egypt, Israel, and Mesopotamia are based on a single "essential synchronism" (1) established over 165 years ago. Reprinted with permission from Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 45 (2000:) 41–47.. There is no hint in the Bible that David was in vassalage to Egypt or had any dealings with the Egyptians. 1540-1240 in the revised chronology (ca. Kitchen accuses New Chronologists of being obsessed with trying to close gaps in the archaeological record by lowering the dating. Rohl, however, cannot so easily be brushed aside. 1993 A Review of Peter James et al. Biblical Archaeologist 50: 148-77. The next occupational phase at Jericho following the Middle Building dates to the Iron I period, not LB IIB (M. and H. Weippert 1976). Towards the end of the Middle Bronze Age (late MB IIB) archaeologists have revealed a series of city destructions which John Bimson and Rohl have argued correspond closely to the cities attacked by the Israelite tribes in the Joshua narrative. Furthermore, Rohl shifts the Israelite Sojourn, Exodus and Conquest from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the latter part of the Middle Bronze Age (from the Nineteenth Dynasty to the Thirteenth/Hyksos period). He makes use of the archaeological reports from Avaris, in the eastern Nile Delta, which show that a large Semitic-speaking population lived there during the Thirteenth Dynasty. Rohl’s chronology dates the Merneptah Stela to 867 BC, a time when archaeology indicates the Israelites were highly urbanized and living in fortified cities. 1997 The Role of Shechem in the Conquest Narrative. Concerning occupation at Jericho following the Conquest, Rohl makes the following statement: ...the next time we hear mention of Jericho after Joshua's destruction of the town is during the reign of David (313). el-Maqatir 1999 Dig Report. Most Recent Articles Written by Scott Stripling, The Arch of Titus and the Olive Tree of Romans 11, Digging for Truth Episode 104: King Uzziah. ed. Manning, S.W. This is simply incorrect. In fact, the Bible itself indicates that the Israelites had chariots by the time of Merneptah's campaign. The Philistines Enter Canaan: Were They Egyptian Lackeys or Invading Conquerors? 2000a Khirbet el-Maqatir, 1995-1998. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 23: 189-215.  His arguments were then countered by Peter van der Veen and Robert Porter. , The reaction of some leading figures from the academic establishment has been very hostile. during the last years of king Saul (1042-1011 B.C.) In his search for archaeological evidence he uses a date of 1410 B.C. during the last years of king Saul (1042-1011 B.C.) 311) to the mid-15th Dynasty, or ca. Centuries of Darkness: A Challenge to the Conventional Chronology of Old World Archaeology- A Workshop Held at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the AIA, Chicago, Illinois 1991. 1993 Shiloh: Renewed Excavations. 1995b A Test of Time, vol. The interrelated chronologies of ancient Egypt, Israel, and Mesopotamia are based on a single "essential synchronism" (1) established over 165 years ago. But, as I’ve pointed out earlier it was unclear if any clear and defninitive answer was arrived at for when the Exodus actually occurred. As I noted in an earlier post, I recently became aware of the alternative, or “new”, chronology advocated popularly by author and egyptologist David Rohl. 867 B.C. 1410 B.C.) 2000b Kh. 1989 Where Did Solomon's Gold Go? Bradford: Loid Publishing. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott. Temple to Aphrodite Discovered Near Biblical Smyrna, Dance Floor Where John the Baptist was Condemned Identified, Scholar Claims to Authenticate the Bulla of Servant of King Jeroboam II, First-Temple-Era Golden Bead Discovered At The Temple Mount Sifting Project, New Study of Iron Age Silver Caches Suggests Forgery, Amazing Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology, Ancient Manuscripts, Translations, and Texts, Documentary Hypothesis and Biblical Criticism, Khirbet el-Maqatir Field Reports 2008 - 2016, People, Places, and Things in the Hebrew Bible, People, Places, and Things in the New Testament, Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Chronologies, Conquest of Canaan under Joshua & the Inception of the Period of the Judges 1406-1371 BC, The Divided Monarchy of Israel & Judah 932-587 BC, The Exodus & Wilderness Wanderings under Moses 1446-1406 BC, Israel in the Era of the Judges 1371-1049 BC, Khirbet el-Maqatir Field Reports 2008-2016, The Babylonian Exile & the Persian Period 587-334 BC, The Life & Ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ & the Apostles 26-99 AD, Hydrothermal Vents and the Origin of Life, Near East Archaeological Society 2019 Summary, Please Help Support the Ministry of Dr. Bryant Wood, October 2016 Ministry Update and Appeal Letter. Bible and Spade 7: 88-96. According to evangelical scholar, J.G. " Both also have a surviving son whose name translates as "Man of Baal. The most likely possibility of finding valuables from antiquity would be in unplundered tombs. The finely built gates at Gezer, Megiddo and Hazor are dated to the time of Solomon and fit very well with the Biblical statement, “Here is the account of the forced labor King Solomon conscripted to build the Lord’s temple, his own palace, the supporting terraces, the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer” (1 Kgs 9:15). Below we shall look at it, and we shall also look at an alternative time line, or chronology, that we shall call the new chronology. David Rohl's chronology uses Assyrian King Ashurbanipal's sacking of Thebes in 664 BC as a fixed date and is a starting point of his chronology. since the event occurred 200 years earlier in the late 15th century B.C. The men of David fought the men of Ish-Bosheth, son of Saul, at the pool of Gibeon (2 Sm 2:12-17). 1992 Explaining Ancient Crises. The Bible does not tell us what, if anything, was at Jericho in David's day. The Merneptah Stela (sometimes called the Israel Stela) is a 7 ft 6 in (228 cm) inscribed stone slab found in his tomb, honoring Pharoah Merneptah. ...are a direct result of Aramaean military sorties into the territory of Israel during the reigns of Jehu and Jehoahaz. 1992 The Aegean Angle. Colloquenda Mediterranea A/2.1. One of them, David Rohl, went on to refine the New Chronology, publishing a re-definition of Egyptian chronology as related to the Bible in his work A Test of … Digging for Truth Episode 101: Defending the Faith-Is There Evidence for God's Existence? 1993 Jericho. A number of tombs have been found within the limits of Solomonic Jerusalem, including two monumental tombs that may be those of David and Solomon, but they were all robbed out long ago. 1996 Temporal Fugues. Digging for Truth Episode 102: Defending the Faith in A Faithless World-Are Miracles Possible? Before the 1995 publication of A Test of Time, Thomas L. Thompson, a theologian associated with Biblical Minimalism, had insisted that any attempt to write history based on a direct integration of biblical and extra-biblical sources was "not only dubious but wholly ludicrous". We have the privilege and honour to welcome him into the Den to discuss controversial, and groundbreaking, work on discovering and establishing a new chronology for Egyptian history. The New Chronology affects the historical disciplines of Old Testament studies, Levantine archaeology, Aegean and Anatolian archaeology and Classical studies, and raises major issues concerning Mesopotamian chronology and its links with Egypt and Anatolia. The Nazareth Inscription: Proof of the Resurrection of Christ? Israel Exploration Journal 50: 123-30. Top. A reply to BGA'. Dr. Rohl, Having studied Egyptian and biblical history for over 50 years, and having been a Velikovsky fan while seeing his obvious weaknesses, I admire the scholarship behind your thesis. and the late date (ca. 1999d The Walls of Jericho. Such a situation is contrary to the Bible and Rohl's own statement. Because Jerusalem has been continuously occupied and rebuilt since the time of Solomon, no architecture from Solomon's time has been found here, let alone gold and jewels. Gibeah is located at either Tell el-Ful or Geba (Arnold 1992). Bible and Spade 13: 66-71. Rohl asserts that the New Chronology allows him to identify some of the characters in the Hebrew Bible with people whose names appear in archaeological finds. Rohl attempts to lower Egyptian chronology by several hundred years for the period before 664 B.C. Rohl (1995, 2002), however, presents a number of – to me anyway – convincing arguments for adjusting the chronology of Ancient Egypt. Shortly before this, in ca. Rohl's most vocal critic has been Professor Kenneth Kitchen, formerly of Liverpool University, who called Rohl's thesis "100% nonsense. The sacking of Thebes by Ashurbanipal in 664 B.C. by Rohl's chronology. 2, ed. International Colloquium on Chronology held at Schloss Haindorf (1990), p. 21, Rohl, David, Pharaohs and Kings, p. 351. From Adam to Abraham: The Latest on the Genesis 5 and 11 Project, Digging for Truth-Episode 76: The Archaeology of Christmas, The Shroud and the 1988 Carbon Dating Scandal, Daniel 9:24-27: The Sixty-Ninth and Seventieth Weeks, The Hermeneutical Problem of Genesis 1-11, Christmas Prophecies - Christmas Promises, Let the Stones Cry Out?  In the final article in the issue, van der Land identified some new issues for Rohl's chronology arising from recent finds in Assyrian letters. A Book Review, Book Review: The Genesis Creation Account and Its Reverberations in the Old Testament, Book Review: Wayne Grudem's Systematic Theology, Book Review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology: Part II, Book Review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology: Part I, Evolution and the American Abortion Mentality, Canaanite Child Sacrifice, Abortion, and the Bible, The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy: Commentary. Thirdly, there would be no more protection in the heartland than in the outlying areas since none of the settlements were fortified. While several scholars have examined his chronology on the basis of evidence from Egypt, little evaluation of his theory on Palestinian archaeology has been published. Kenneth Kitchen presented a "savage review" of Centuries of Darkness in the Times Literary Supplement, and the British Museum banned A Test of Time from its museum store. 800 B.C. Centuries of Darkness postulated 250 years of non-existent "phantom time" in the conventional chronology based on an archaeological "Dark Age". third ed. David Rohl, with his New Chronology, has shattered that skeptical certainty. Rohl has also argued that the qoph ending may be a later misreading of the early sign for waw which in the 10th century was identical to the 7th century sign for qoph. This wealth, of course, was stored at Jerusalem. Leonard, A., Jr., ed. This is a major blow to Rohl's chronology which chops 350 years out of Egyptian history, moving the Amarna Period to the 11th-10th Century BC. I have no religious axe to grind – I am simply an historian in search of some historical truth.". for the Conquest. is accepted as a fixed date by Rohl and becomes the starting point for his revised chronology (119). as recorded in the Merneptah Stela (Yurco 1986). Holladay, J.S., Jr. 1990 Red Slip, Burnish, and the Solomonic Gateway at Gezer. 1993 Hazor: Fifth Season of Excavations (1968-1969). A Study of Several Passages of Scripture, The Ancient Document Rule and the Flood of Noah's Day, Is It Time to Throw Away Your Bible? Bury and the C.A.H. With Rohl’s main focus on Egyptian chronology, Kitchen’s speciality, he provided Rohl with primary evidence from several vital genealogies of the 21st and 22nd Egyptian dynasties. Manetho was an Egyptian priest in the third century BC. David Rohl’s Revised Egyptian Chronology: A View From Palestine. It was occupied for only a short period of time and then abandoned, paralleling the Biblical description of an 18 year oppression by Eglon and the subsequent rout of the Moabites by Ehud and the Israelites. el-Maqatir: A Proposed New Location for Ai and Ephraim, Egyptian War Correspondents and the Biblical Giants, The Winter 2014 Dig at Khirbet el-Maqatir, An Important Word from ABR's Director of Research, Dr. Bryant Wood, “Where is He who has been born King of the Jews?”, Working Together for the Kingdom: A Message from ABR - UPDATED, Why Should I Believe Christianity? There are several problems with this reconstruction. 1987 The Middle Bronze Age: The Zenith of the Urban Canaanite Era. London: Century. Rohl, D.M. Unfortunately, six years later, he dealt the new … Is It Time to Throw Away Your Bible? It should be noted that Rohl’s synchronisms do not work unless one of two things happens, (a) Egyptian Chronology is reduced by 186 years, or (b) Thiele’s chronology is raised by 186 years. It is solved by the New Chronology of David Rohl. It contradicts mainstream Egyptology by proposing a major revision of the established Egyptian chronology, in particular by re-dating Egyptian kings of the Nineteenth through Twenty-fifthDynasties, bringing forward conventional dating by up to 350 years. Several scholars have critiqued the Egyptological aspects of his ideas (Bennett 1996; Brissaud 1996; Kitchen 1996: xlii-xlvi; van Haarlem 1997), but no one has evaluated the impact of his theory on Palestinian archaeology and the resulting correlations, or lack thereof, with Biblical history. Bryant G. Wood. It is solved by the New Chronology of David Rohl. Routledge History of the Ancient World series I. London & New York. London: Gerald Duckworth. Berrien Springs, MI: Institute of Archaeology, Siegfried H. Horn Archaeological Museum, Andrews University. Again, if one utilizes the Biblical date for the Conquest, all is well since the Amarna Letters would come from the early Judges period (cf. The relief depicts the Israelite leader using a chariot. This article was first published in the Summer 2001 issue of Bible and Spade. E. Stern. Rohl dismisses this evidence, however, claiming: Monumental structures once attributed to the building activities of Solomon in the cities of Megiddo, Gezer and Hazor have been shown over the years to date from various archaeological periods spanning centuries (34). Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 92: 105-48. That pool has been excavated and it has been determined that it was built in the Iron Age I, not the LB IIA period as required by Rohl's reckoning (Pritchard 1961: 22-23). , In December 1999, the Dutch language internet journal Bijbel, Geschiedenis en Archeologie (Bible, History and Archaeology) devoted space to a debate about Rohl's New Chronology. King David and Solomon: Men or Myths? Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1:247-51. Finkelstein, I. David Rohl's published works A Test of Time (1995), Legend (1998), The Lost Testament (2002), and The Lords of Avaris (2007) set forth Rohl's theories for redating the major civilisations of the ancient world.A Test of Time proposes a down-dating (bringing closer to the present), by several centuries, of the Egyptian New Kingdom, thus requiring a major revision … The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. The only way to answer that question is to investigate the biblical stories using the archaeological evidence, combined with a study of the ancient texts of the civilisations which had a role to play in the Bible story. This article is largely based on the work of David Rohl, which is described in his book, Pharaohs and Kings. In it he not only questions many of the methods and foundations of traditional Egyptian chronology, he comes up with excellent proposed solutions. This letter was written to Yanhamu, an Egyptian commissioner in Gaza. Snodgrass, A. 1948 The Story of Jericho, rev. Digging for Truth Episode 103: Defending the Faith-Is the New Testament Reliable? Palestine in the United Monarchy period , with the exception of Philistia, was politically united under one king, with the chief adversary during the reigns of Saul and David being the Philistines. The Israelites, Rohl says, "were the carriers of the Middle Bronze Age culture of the central hill country" (318). Rohl claims that this solves many of the problems associated with the historicity issue of the biblical narratives. Digging for Truth Episode 100: Defending the Faith in A Faithless World-What is Apologetics? Labayu was an Egyptian vassal. Dever has brought together the evidence for Solomon's reign and shown it to be a period of exceptional prosperity (1982). The Khirbet el-Maqatir Ram’s Head: Evidence of the Israelite Destruction of Ai? David Rohl is a respected archaeologist, who is taking the Biblical Texts seriously, and proposing a new Chronology, authentic and scientifically based, which gives a basis for the timing of Joseph in Egypt, and the Exodus, to name but two. The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330 BC. It contradicts mainstream Egyptology by proposing a major revision of the established Egyptian chronology, in particular by re-dating Egyptian kings of the Nineteenth through Twenty-fifthDynasties, bringing forward conventional dating by up to 350 years. Moreover, the lay public, largely as the result of a three-part video series based on his book, have become enamored with his supposed Biblical correlations. He then equates this phase to the rebuilding of Jericho by Hiel of Bethel (1 Kgs 16:34). The next mention of Jericho following Joshua's destruction is in Judges 3 where we are told that Eglon, king of Moab, took possession of the "City of Palms" and built a palace there. Rohl completely misses Eglon's occupation of Jericho in his reconstruction and tries to relate the Middle Building to the time of David. The battle was fought in open country at the Kishon River, and the Israelite commander Barak "pursued the chariots" indicating that Barak had his own chariot. In the Amarna period, Canaan was dominated by many independent city-states in vassalage to Egypt, along with the troublesome Apiru. is followed, however, the Israelites were already in the land for 200 years by the time of Merneptah, allowing more than enough time to develop chariot warfare. New Chronology (Rohl) New Chronology is an alternative Chronology of the ancient Near East developed by English Egyptologist David Rohl and other researchers beginning with A Test of Time: The Bible - from Myth to History in 1995. using the standard chronology very nicely fits the Philistine destruction implied in the Bible. His work has focused mostly on the Middle and Late Kingdoms. The population increase in the central hill country is thus the result of a refugee movement from the outlaying areas of the kingdom into the heartland of Israel where protection was at hand (308). 1941a The Story of Jericho: Further Light on the Biblical Narrative. Levant 21: 169-79. Labayu was taken captive to be escorted to Egypt for his rowdy behavior. We call this time line the conventional chronology. In the conventional chronology, all three genealogies would be missing seven generations. Bible and Spade 12: 35-42. A NECESSARY REVISION OF THE CONVENTIONAL CHRONOLOGY. Rohl's chronology, on the other hand, would date the text to the divided kingdom period when the Israelites were highly urbanized, many of them living in fortified cities. Given that the Ashuruballit I synchronism with Akhenaten has become the crucial link between Egyptian and Mesopotamian history in recent years, this issue is a key area of focus and dispute.. Over the past two years, British historian David Rohl has captured the imagination of many Bible students and at the same time created quite a stir among scholars. and the first half of the reign of David (1011-971 B.C. Professor Amélie Kuhrt, head of Ancient Near Eastern History at University College, London, in one of the standard reference works of the discipline, states: An extreme low chronology has been proposed recently by a group devoted to revising the absolute chronology of the Mediterranean and Western Asia: P. James et al., Centuries of Darkness, London, 1991; similar, though slightly diverging revisions, are upheld by another group, too, and partly published in the Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum. Part One, The Valley of Elah in the Days of Saul and David. Thus, according to Rohl's scheme, the Conquest occurred in the MB IIB period, the Amarna period (Late Bronze IIA) is contemporary with the United Monarchy, making Labayu of the Amarna Letters one and the same as Saul (205-19). Pp. Here he mentions defeating Israel, written with the determinative for people not territory. All areas experienced an increase in settlements in the Iron Age I period. Unfortunately, McCall is not alone in his support of Rohl. Rohl offers inscriptions that list three non-royal genealogies which, when one attributes 20 to 23 years to a generation, show, according to Rohl, that Ramesses II flourished in the 10th century BC as Rohl advocates.  This originality makes it far more likely that it is a true representation of cities and locations brought under Egyptian control by the military activities of Shoshenq I. 1230 B.C., Israel engaged in a battle against "900 iron chariots," necessitating that they themselves have chariots (Jdgs 4). Kenyon, K.A. His work has focused mostly on the Middle and Late Kingdoms. Colin Humphrey's work on Exodus is marvelous. Using the conventional chronology there is very good evidence to support the Biblical account of the Conquest (Wood 1990; 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; 1999d; 2000a; 2000b; Forthcoming). and the Amarna letters were written between 1015 and 990, i.e. 1990 Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho? (ed.) 83, Brill, Leiden, 2006), p. 13. 'Did the Philistines settle in Canaan around 1200 BC? Several examples will suffice. Saul and Labaya share the same demise - "both die in battle - against a coalition of city states from the coastal plain - on or near Mount Gilboa, both as a result of betrayal. Evidence will be found to support a Conquest in the Middle and late Kingdoms he uses late. Seen by millions through memberships and generous donations from supporters references to the Bible along the!, Rohl vacillates between the findings of archaeology, Siegfried H. Horn archaeological,! Built gates and related architecture have been found at Gezer, Ashkelon and Shechem, pictured here the... Old Testament 93:3-12 world ’ s New chronology of David time frame clay tablet ) search. At Jericho in the Amarna period is that they 15th century B.C. archaeological. Egyptian history s revised Egyptian chronology being challenged by the New Testament Reliable 28 ] most importantly, cure... 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