For an electronic version of this document, visit our website at In the picture below, you can see how the concrete block foundation wall was built to the slab elevation, and a 4-inch step down was built at the patio. (25 mm) for each 1 ft (300 mm) of wall height for the amount or buried block that is needed. For example, to keep a 2x4 … Although the top surface of poured concrete footings should be relatively level, it should generally not be troweled smooth, as a slightly roughened surface enhances the bond between the mortar and concrete. Standard CMU Block Wall Detail The purpose of this Information Bulletin is to assist owners and builders who may choose to erect simple freestanding concrete masonry unit (CMU) block walls using the Department’s standard detail. 5. 45 cm/18 inch). and replace these with compacted hardfill/roadbase. Every 2-3 courses, the guys used wall ties and nails to anchor the block wall to the existing foundation. (25 mm) clear air space between the masonry and backup to ensure an open drainage cavity. Step 1 Prepare the concrete footings with mortar to receive the first layer of cinder blocks. above grade without having to use materials that are not subject to degradation from contact with the soil. If warranted, horizontal joint reinforcement can be installed as a crack control measure. Small non engineered retaining walls, are unlikely to require Scala Penetrometer foundation testing, which accurately measures the subsoil bearing strength. As an example: A wall built from 8-inch blocks with a 22-inch-wide foundation is 7 inches deep, since 7 inches is how much footing will extend beyond the blocks. Foundation walls built with ICFs are easier and faster to construct than either concrete masonry unit or cast-in-place concrete foundations. Block wall foundations are common in … (64 mm) concrete mud slab is generally used when a more durable surface is desired for access to utilities. 9). ACI-318•10.10 provides an approximation … Use sash blocks for curved walls. Atop Retaining Wall; Freestanding; Masonry Pilaster; Patio Cover Requirements/Drawings; Pool Barrier Requirements; Retaining Walls; Standard Garage Plans; Structural Details Drawings. The footing distributes the house’s weight to prevent settling or movement. (150 mm) plus an additional 1 in. International Code Council, 2000. If the height of the foundation wall was more than 1.8 m above ground level, it was considered as the lower of two storeys, and therefore 150 mm thick. Foundation Wall Thickness and Required Lateral Support 1)Except as required in Sentence (2), the thickness of foundation walls made of unreinforced concrete block or solid concrete and subject to lateral earth pressure shall conform to Table … DEAR BOB: The answer, although fairly intuitive, is not as crystal clear as you might think. The 8 inch long blocks make a much smoother curve than standard 16 inch blocks. 2001 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals. DIY considerations. Road Base compaction. Building a Block Wall. Single-stack concrete block pier loads must not exceed 8,000 lbs. In addition, if the basement is not already insulated, consider extending insulation a minimum of 610 mm (24 in.) Without adequate curing conditions, this does not happen, and the wall weakens and is prone … Where continuous wood foundations in accordance with Section R404.2 are used, the force transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater than the connections required by Section R602.11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be connected to the wood foundations in accordance with the braced wall panel-to-floor fastening requirements of Table R602.3(1). Because each construction project is unique, local codes mandate requirements for foundation footings. Using the dimensions in Step 1, the … Block wall: concreteblocks are assembled into a wall with mortar, reinforcing steel, ... and regarding concrete footing requirements. Types of Foundations. If you need these blocks, contact the supplier in advance, in case they don't stock them and need a few days to get them. Utilize a Local Structural Engineer for Footing Design. Concrete masonry is durable, hard wearing and not prone to rotting which means you will have a long lasting wall. Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee, 2002. International Building Code. They would bend a wall tie in place, nail it to the foundation and embed the rest of the tie in the joint between blocks. For brick masonry, cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 is used as a loading condition. In the case of column and raft footings up to plinth level, cement concrete 1:2:4 or1:1.5:3 are used. Preventing Water Penetration in Below-Grade Concrete Masonry Walls. 3. Decorative Veneers. Use a tape measure to find the dimensions of the footing area on the ground. A thicker concrete slab may be desirable, particularly if the crawlspace will be used for storage. The footing is generally wider than the foundation wall and is located about 12 inches below the frost line (the average depth at which soil freezes year after year). Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ref. (25 mm) air space is considered appropriate if special precautions are taken to keep the air space clean (such as by beveling the mortar bed away from the cavity or by drawing a piece of wood up the cavity to collect mortar droppings). 34 cm/13.5 inch) or at least twice the width of a one brick wall (i.e. These walls will become the outer edges of the concrete slab, and will be located at all changes in elevation, or steps, in the slab. (203 mm), with a nominal height not exceeding four times its nominal thickness and a nominal length not exceeding three times its nominal thickness. The optional footing drain shown, such as 2 in. Foundation wall footings had a minimum depth into the ground of 300 mm and were a minimum height of 300 mm above ground level (Figure 1). For piers, the foundations should have a margin on all sides of at least half a brick (i.e. Some areas use concrete blocks, also referred to by their old name of cinder block. The minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f 'c, shall comply with Section R402.2 and shall be not less than 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 3000 psi (20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D 0, D 1 or D 2. 3)For concrete block foundationwalls required to be reinforced, a) mortar shall be Type S, conforming to CSA A179, “Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry,” b) grout shall be coarse, conforming to CSA A 179, “Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry,” and c) placement of grout shall conform to CSA A371, “Masonry Construction for Buildings.” Note on the plan the number of 8-inch block courses at each point. Stud walls will be installed here, so the top edge of the block will be covered. Table 1 shows that in Chicago (Climate Zone 5), a flat roofed building (other than Group R) must have R25 continuous insulation and masonry walls must have R11.4 continuous insulation to comply with this table . 2.2 Types of Retaining Walls This is generally done either … 4. Footers for block walls consist of a footing trench, steel reinforcement rods -- rebar --- and concrete. Continue stacking the blocks in rows, making sure to stagger them with each row to make the wall … Following requirements must be satisfied to maintain structural stability 1. "Nominal" size refers to the size of a block or brick when the thickness of the mortar joint is included. Make sure the block walls match the plan and dimensions of the house! Because of this, water penetration resistance is of paramount importance to basement wall design and construction. The grout may contain 2 parts pea gravel, maximum size 3/8”. Unvented crawlspaces must have a floor covering to minimize moisture and, where applicable, soil gas entry. But the lesson to take is that when soils are very strong, (4,000-psf capacity or better), the footings may not be strictly necessary from the standpoint of bearing. Wall Height Max. Building Code Foundation Requirements Site Grading. (203 mm), with a nominal height not exceeding four times its nominal thickness and a nominal length not exceeding three times its nominal thickness. These are used to meet code requirements for tall walls. (51 mm) air space is preferred. Veneers such as stucco or plaster add a decorative look to an … A. All Rights Reserved. Start building the second level and so on by placing limestone blocks in a brick pattern. Note that local codes may restrict the use of foam plastic insulation below grade in areas where the hazard of termite damage is high. When a full-height mating wall does not support the ridge beam, this area is considered an unsupported span … American Concrete Institute, 2002. Partial … Sit at a table with the floor plan, and figure the lengths of the block walls. Normally a foundation wall with seven rows of block will be 24 inches wide and 12 inches deep and should have a footing 30 inches below grade. The modular nature of concrete masonry allows floor plan and wall height changes to be easily accommodated as well. (51 mm) PVC pipe at 8 ft (2400 mm) on center, allows water on the interior to reach the foundation drain. All exterior walls, marriage walls, marriage wall posts, columns and piers, must be sup-ported on an acceptable foundation system that must be of sufficient design to support safely the loads imposed, as determined from the character of the soil. Step 3 9. Some older houses in my area have brick foundations. This TEK contains details for various types of concrete masonry foundation walls, with accompanying text as appropriate. After an earlier discussion yesterday, about my home I did a little research its still fresh. Concrete retaining wall blocks are easy to install and ideal for building soil retaining walls, reclaiming sloped land, reducing erosion and even creating feature garden walls, planter boxes and veggie patches. The footing should be at least as thick vertically as the wall's planned width. ACI-318 prescribes reinforcement requirements for concrete walls. If you can avoid having a large surplus of block, you will avoid big waste. 2, 3, 4, respectively). The actual size of the block or brick is less than the nominal size. The resulting raised floor makes the house look much better than when the is slab poured basically flat to the ground. Insulating forms protect the concrete from freezing or rapid drying. Foundation walls commonly resist both an applied axial load from the structure above and an applied lateral soil load from backfill. FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS. Project Instructions. Step 1 Prepare the concrete footings with mortar to receive the first layer of cinder blocks. These are required by code for bolting down the stud wall bottom plate ("sole plate"). Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ref. Wall Height Max. Similarly, heavy equipment, such as bulldozers or cranes, should not be operated over the backfill during construction unless the basement walls are appropriately designed for the higher resulting loads. The total cinder blocks needed will be 1.125 times the area of the wall but be sure to subtract the openings such as windows, doors or any other architectural feature. Remember to add some extra for cutting, corners and waste. 8) allows foundation piers to have a nominal height up to ten times … Figure 3-5 Foundation requirements for interior braced wall line on slab-on-grade construction. Most gabion walls do not require concrete foundations. CLICK HERE to get FREE & FAST BIDS on a POURED concrete foundation. 5), and concrete foundations are constructed with tolerances conforming to the requirements of Standard Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials, ACI 117 (ref. A stemwall with brick ledge is shown in Figure 6. They would bend a wall tie in place, nail it to the foundation and embed the rest of the tie in the joint between blocks. Unbalanced Backfill Rebar required for poured concrete/ Clay soils 7’ 6’ #5@48” (32”), #4@31” (21”) 7’ #6@48” (32”), #5@34” (23”), #4@2 Crushed or smooth stone, well graded, compactable aggregate, … Learn more about the cost of concrete footings. The ground immediately adjacent to the foundation footings—on the exterior of the footings—should slope... Load-Bearing Value of Soil. Both types can also be reinforced with steel rebar. Nudura Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs) are the superior alternative to traditional building methods and materials. A poured concrete footing for concrete, block or brick walls should be at least twice as wide as the planned wall. In the picture below, notice how the concrete block is laid at the footing step at the bottom of the wall. The footing dimensions will largely be determined by the size of the wall. Convert the lengths to inches, divide by 16, and multiply by the number of block courses. To build a quality wall, use a clean, granular rock underneath the base course to create a firm foundation for your project. Foundations. Foundation walls shall extend at least 8" above the finished grade adjacent to the foundation … 12-inch block - 12 inches wide (12x8x16) instead of 8 inches. B. Concrete blocks are typically a "nominal" 16 inches long. If unvented, either the walls or the floor above can be insulated. Grout mix for concrete block wall to be 1 part cement to 3 parts sand to which may be added not more than 0.1 part lime. The typical cinder block is 8 by 16 inches meaning that a cinder block covers an area of 1.125 square feet. DEAR TIM: How thick should a poured concrete foundation wall be? The Type 2 Foundation shown at the left is what you will be required to use if you can't use the previously discussed foundation type, or are building a garage of more than one-story (with possible dwelling space above) requiring a spread footing to distribute the loads. Vic and Susan Hunt are a husband and wife team with over 10 years experience designing and building homes. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-02. When working with cement-based products, always wear eye protection and waterproof gloves. ICF Footings Requirements. Block Walls. A few extra standard 8-inch blocks are useful for many of the subs to use throughout the project, but you only need about 10 to 20. Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures, ACI 530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 402-02. (102 to 203 mm) of backfill should be low permeability soil so rain water absorption into the backfill is minimized. Foundations must rest on firm, undisturbed soil. The corners of the block wall will be an empty cavity. Note that the International Building Code, (ref. A poured concrete footing for concrete, block or brick walls should be at least twice as wide as the planned wall. Building a concrete block wall is one of the more involved building projects that requires careful planning and a little heavy lifting, but easy to accomplish with QUIKRETE Mason Mix. ACI-318 prescribes reinforcement requirements for concrete walls. 11 cm/4.5 inch). Project Instructions Quantity Calculator Shopping List. Cinder block foundation walls are filled with mortar or cement; non-foundation walls often remain hollow. Water and weather wears down the mortar over time and causes leaks. In general you will need to remove topsoil, peaty organic material, and softer subsoils. Where the top edge of the concrete will be exposed, such as around patios and across garage doors, the top row of block must be lower, and lumber is used to form the edges. After any concrete wall is poured, there is a curing process that needs to occur. Prefabricated piers must not exceed their approved or listed maximum vertical or horizontal design loads. This type of foundation rests upon a reinforced concrete spread footing and then has a concrete stem wall … A vapor retarder (typically 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene, PVC or equivalent) is good practice to minimize water migration and soil gas infiltration. Start by measuring the width of your future wall, then calculate the footing area. Exceed code requirements; CLICK HERE to Get Tim's FREE & FUNNY Newsletter! Spread mortar on the footings (about ¾ inch thick), spreading only enough to accept three or four cinder blocks or use a trowel to mortar each block individually. For this case, note that masonry design codes typically require a minimum 1 in. below ground level over the foundation wall. Similarly, tree roots, construction debris and ice should be removed prior to placing footings. Bob McKnight, Hagerstown, MD . The depth and size of the foundation will vary depending on the size of the concrete block wall and the weight it must support, but a typical freestanding wall requires a foundation that is about twice as wide as the wall itself and which extends about 1 foot down below the frost line. Step … Concrete masonry is used to construct various foundation wall types, including full basement walls, crawlspace walls, stem walls and piers. The top 4 to 8 in. Footing drains can either be cast into the footing or constructed using plastic pipes through the bottom of the first course of masonry, directly on top of the footing. After the concrete blocks are laid, the voids can be filled with a cement-based mortar or poured concrete that contains small pea gravel. When placing 100mm … We refer to the material used for the base, within and behind the block as Wall Rock. There are three types of conventional concrete foundations: poured concrete, concrete block, and post … This will give a close number of blocks. In un-reinforced walls, it’s oftentimes the roof that provides lateral stability to a building. The wall can be extended to a minimum of 200 mm (8 in.) foundation Wall Thickness and Required Lateral support (1) Except as required in Sentence (2), the thickness of foundation walls made of unreinforced concrete block or solid concrete and subject to lateral earth pressure shall conform to Table Several alternate crawlspace constructions are shown in Figures 3 and 4. The footing is the foundational base of the cinder block wall. American Concrete Institute, 1990. Foundation walls commonly resist both an applied axial load from the structure above and an applied lateral soil load from backfill. In most cases, vertical reinforcement is positioned towards the interior face of below grade walls to provide the greatest resistance to soil pressures. Foundation Soil Preparation for Concrete Block Retaining walls. Calculate the necessary cinder block by square feet. Concrete block walls are more labor intensive, requiring mortar at all joints connecting the blocks. The First Row . Standard CMU Block Wall Detail Information Bulletin BU-009 Eff: 08-18-2008 Rev: 05-24-2018 This information is available in an alternative format by request to (562) 570-3807. Good drainage and compaction will add to the quality and performance of your finished wall. The curved face of the patio with sash blocks during construction (above). In this case, the soil should be removed and replaced with compacted soil, gravel or concrete. Figures 5 and 6 show concrete masonry stemwalls with masonry and with frame above grade walls, respectively. You don't want to run out of block, but you also don't want to have way too many left over. The foundation drain shown in Figures 1 and 2 can also be located on the interior side of the footing, or on both sides if necessary. How the foundation walls work at dropped patios, porches and garages can sometimes be confusing, so study the drawings and talk with the mason to be sure that all the walls are laid correctly. However, many local code authorities use the 2018 International Building Codes and 2018 International Residential Codes as the model codes they modify to suit local conditions and legal requirements. Also notice the steel anchor bolt sticking out of the concrete. You can also see a row of half-high blocks in the nearest wall. The concrete and block work may not be suitable for DIY. It should be compacted to at least 95% standard proctor compaction test. They also are useful above ground because they are naturally fire-resistant and weatherproof, and impervious to damage by insects, rot and mold. To build a cinder block wall, start by digging a hole for the foundation and reinforcing it by placing steel rebar into each corner. The drain should be placed below the top of the footing. It was often necessary to cut the last block of a section or in order to stagger the joints on the next course of block, and they … While the poured wall wins for … Also remember that the top row of block will be header blocks in areas where the slab edge will not be exposed when the house is finished. Types of concrete block that you can expect to use are -. Chapter 3, Foundations and Foundation Walls 53 3.2 CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Regardless of Seismic Design Category, the minimum specified concrete strength for foundations (and foundation walls) is 2,500 … Next, fill the hole with concrete and let it dry overnight. Make Block Walls Solid. 45 cm/18 inch). These blocks create a hollow core inside the wall that is normally filled with concrete and reinforced with steel rods. for walls not exceeding 3.0 m in unsupported height. Unlike basements, crawlspaces are typically designed as unconditioned spaces, either vented or unvented. Concrete footing design is governed by Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318 (ref. Going 24" on center is right in the middle of your second block. A half wall with a finished cement floor is another option which can be used in those cases where the floor line is … modular block retaining wall blocks under this section shall be cast utilizing a wet -cast concrete mix and exhibit a final handling weight in excess of 1,000 pounds (450 kg) per unit and may utilized concrete reinforcing steel. Block wall foundations are more prone to bowing and buckling and repairs are costly if you have to rebuild the block wall. Foundation soil under the basement should be excavated in accordance with drawings of the concrete block retaining wall design. Is it a function of the size of the house? Unless otherwise required, footings should be carefully aligned so that the concrete masonry wall will be near the center line of the footing. Concrete block walls are more susceptible to water intrusion than solid concrete, due to having many joints. Step 9: Cutting Block. Foundation. Prescriptive requirements for building envelope elements are listed in table format, with requirements listed separately for each element and climate zone, as shown in Table 1. Step 2 Mark the perimeter of the footing by planting two parallel lines of stakes. Stemwalls are typically insulated on the exterior of the masonry. Nearly every house was built with a masonry foundation. A solid top course on the below grade concrete masonry wall spreads loads from the building above and also improves soil gas and termite resistance. Build Additional Wall Layers. A 2 ½ in. ** Compact the base trench making a minimum of two passes with a walk behind plate compactor. Reinforcing requirements for in situ concrete and concrete masonry foundation walls supporting . 34 cm/13.5 inch) or at least twice the width of a one brick wall (i.e. Concrete masonry can be used to provide a strong, durable, energy efficient and insect resistant foundation for all building types. The lateral force exerted by the mass of earth which surrounds the walls can have a considerable effect, particularly in the case of walls to deep basements. Table It should be at least two times wider than the width of your block. Check out our guide if you need a loan for your home improvement project. The top edges of the patio were formed with 2x8's so that no block will show when finished.